In the examples below we have a long string with various cap cases, as well as an example simulationg a user putting space characters into a username input field. We will use these examples to run string functions on them to see how they are parsed.
$test = "the QUICK brown fox jumps over the LAZY dog.";
$username = " jdoe ";
the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG.
The QUICK brown fox jumps over the LAZY dog.
The QUICK Brown Fox Jumps Over The LAZY Dog.
fox jumps over the LAZY dog.
the QUICK brown fox jumps over the LAZY cat.
pretags to see the whitespace - trim():